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The reactions and phase changes occurring during sintering

Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The resultant powder has been subsequently processed in one of two ways in order to produce ...Hydrogen processing of magnetic scrap (HPMS) as one of the best approaches for magnet-to-magnet recycling is thoroughly reviewed in this study in terms …Another example of the coercivity recovery in crushed NdFeB-type sintered magnets was made by adding the DyF 3 salt [8]. Furthermore, the production of anisotropic RE–Fe–B–Cu powders have also been produced by hydrogen decrepitation of hot deformed ingots [9] followed by degassing.

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The basic compound for most Neodymium magnets is Nd2Fe14B. In practice, the actual chemical reaction used can be more complicated. A commonly used reaction is: 57 Fe + 8 B + 10 Fe2O3 + 7.5 Nd2O3 ...The high- and standard-grade material can be processed using either an HD/HDDR process or a sintering process, both of which are being tested in the course of this project. HD/HDDR stands for hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogen-disproportionation decomposition-recombination (HDDR). The HD/HDDR pulverised …Received 21st February 2020, Accepted 5th March 2020. meric portion. The PA-free magnet powder was found to retain >90% of its original magnetic properties. Two epoxy-bonded magnets produced with this recycled magnet powder showed magnetic properties. DOI: 10.1039/d0gc00647e. The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of …A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. NdFeB magnets are used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles and are instrumental in progression toward a low-carbon economy. Recycling rare-earth elements (REEs) from NdFeB magnet waste is an important step toward building a sustainable REE supply chain. In this study, we describe an electrochemical process to selectively extract REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature. First ... Nov 14, 2017 · Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaks down into a matrix phase (Nd2Fe14BHx) and RE-rich grain boundary phase. The grain boundary phase in the HD powder is <2 m in size. As noted above, the calculated Gibbs energy of reactions of individual REE with atomic hydrogen (Table 1) is strongly negative, thereby predictive of rapid chemical decrepitation of the two-phase Nd-magnet within the temperature range of interest. These reactions can be expected to take place immediately … See moreAn effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …The influence of the alloy granulation grade, temperature and surface oxidation on the kinetics and the course of the fracture processes during the hydrogenation of Nd16−xDyxFe76B8 (x=0–3) alloy was studied. The average particle sizes of the alloy were 1 mm, 5 mm and 3 cm and the temperature range between 20 and 200 °C. Pre-oxidation …Feb 9, 2023 · Abstract The process of hydrogen decrepitation of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy in wide temperature and pressure ranges has been studied. The choices of the chemical composition of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy and the method of production of the initial alloy based on out-of-furnace calcium–thermal reduction are substantiated. The introduction of dysprosium into the alloy ... In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process.The high- and standard-grade material can be processed using either an HD/HDDR process or a sintering process, both of which are being tested in the course of this project. HD/HDDR stands for hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogen-disproportionation decomposition-recombination (HDDR). The HD/HDDR pulverised …Mar 1, 1985 · The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the alignment, which can ...

The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of the reaction process, which makes the reaction process with characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying parameters and coupling. In this study, we proposed a state space modeling method to …International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Volume 24, Issues 2–3, 1 March 1999, Pages 257-261. Application of hydrogen vibration milling in theprocessing of NdFeB and (Nd, Pr)FeB permanent magnets. Author links open overlay panel R.S Mottram 1, V Yartys 2, P.W Guegan 1, I.r Harris 1. Show more.The intrinsic magnetic coercivity (H ci) of Nd‐Fe‐B‐based permanent magnet material is profoundly affected by hydrogen absorbed during the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for producing anisotropic powders from bulk anisotropic hot‐deformed MAGNEQUENCH (MQ) magnets.Hydrogen (H) content and x‐ray diffraction …We ascribe the volume expansion during ATF aging to the incorporation of hydrogen dissociated from the organic liquid ATF into the melt-spun NdFeB powder. Hydrogen is known to diffuse into the Nd2Fe14B crystal structure [2–4] and occupy interstitial sites to form the isomorphic hydride Nd2Fe14BHx with up to x=5 H per formula …

Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets Zakotnik M, Devlin E, Harris IR, Williams AJ ... Environmental degradation of NdFeB magnets Yan GL, McGuiness PJ, Farr JPG, Harris IR Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2009;478:188-92 Oxidation of NdFeB-type magnets modified with additions of Co, Dy, Zr and V ...In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. …

Reader Q&A - also see RECOMMENDED ARTICLES & FAQs. The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the . Possible cause: Novel hydrogen decrepitation behaviors of (La, Ce)-Fe-B strips. Jiaying Jin G. Bai +4 a.

Aug 4, 2022 · One of the most promising solutions with regards to extraction of end-of-life (EOL) magnets is to apply hydrogen decrepitation and to physically separate the Nd-Fe-B as a demagnetized... H 2 can be used to extract NdFeB magnets from the automotive scrap, however, many challenges in the recycling are presented.. The importance of design choices, having negative impact on the recycling, are investigated in this work, so can be avoided. • Higher Dy additions slow down the kinetics of the hydrogen decrepitation …

big drive towards recycling of NdFeB magnets due to supply constraints for rare earth metals. Workers at the University of Birmingham have previously shown that hydrogen …Abstract. Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd 1 6 Fe 7 6 B 8 and stoichiometric composition Nd 11.8 Fe 82.3 B 5.9 have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. The influence of the initial microstructures of the alloys on …

Jan 1, 1991 · Abstract. In this paper we describe and discus Permanent magnets produce magnetic fields and maintain the field even in the presence of an opposing magnetic field. They are widely used in electric machines, electronics, and medical devices. Part I reviews the conventional manufacturing processes for commercial magnets, including Nd-Fe-B, Sm-Co, alnico, and ferrite in cast and … May 5, 2017 · The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitationThe MMG has been active in the field of rare earth alloys and proces Jan 1, 2022 · The SC alloy is converted into a fine powder by hydrogen decrepitation and then jet-milling (JM) to produce a fine powder consisting almost entirely of single crystal particles of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase. This powder is then filled into fills molds and pressed while a magnetic field is applied to orient the individual particles. The compacted ... A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ...The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d < 100 µm. Adding a ball milling step resulted in full density … magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogenThis way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepThe basic compound for most Neodymium magnets is Nd2Fe14B. Jan 1, 1991 · The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7]. The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of the reaction process, which makes the reaction process with characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying parameters and coupling. In this study, we proposed a state space modeling … We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sinteri Step 3: Hydrogen Decrepitation. Rare earth elements have hydrogen absorption effect. NdFeB magnet alloy sheets are placed in a vacuum tube rotary furnace. As hydrogen gas is filled, rare earth-rich phase in the grain boundary of NdFeB magnet alloy absorbs hydrogen gas. After hydrogen absorption saturated, the rare earth-rich phase turns to ... So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdF[Introduction. In the fields of sintered magnets, the hydrogen dAbstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and The Hydrogen Decrepitation and the Hydrogen Disproportionation Desorption Recombination processes for the preparation and the recycling of the two industrially produced phases of SmCo alloys, SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, are reviewed. The effects of the chemical composition, the microstructure, the exposure time, the hydrogen …